• 2018-07
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  • br The main limitation of this study is that we


    The main limitation of this study is that we didn’t use a pure po-pulation of CSCs but instead we used residual cisplatin resistant cancer cells with CSCs like phenotype (CD44+ CD24 −) as an antigen source in the preparation of DC-based vaccine. To date, the mechanisms that are involved in CSC-DC vaccination and detailed immunological analysis data on their apparent superior outcomes regarding the development of enhanced antitumor immunity have not been fully defined in addition to the limited experimental evidence. In addition, the identification of CSC antigen(s) requires further investigation. It was stated that immunotherapeutic strategies that engage different effector mechanisms is better to overcome the immunosuppressive mechanisms of cancer (Apetoh et al., 2015).
    5. Conclusion
    Our study opens the field for the development of effective chemo-immunotherapeutic strategies for higher antitumor efficacy and en-hanced immune responses compared to currently available che-motherapies. We used drug selection method based on incubation of EC cell line with cisplatin (50 μg/mL) for 72 h, which not only selected drug-resistant cells, but also the resistant cells were highly enriched with CSC-like phenotype (CD44+/CD24−) population. The study
    revealed an enhancement of the in vivo chemotherapeutic efficacy of repeated low doses of cisplatin when combined with DCs loaded with Angeli’s Salt enriched in drug - resistant cancer stem – like cell lysates. This proposed combined treatment was associated with suppression of tumor growth and potentiated antitumor immune responses compared to either treatment alone. Thus, targeting resistant and tumor cells bearing stem cell characteristics could be beneficial for improving the therapeutic efficacy of conventional chemotherapy taking the ad-vantage of using low doses of cisplatin rather than high doses.
    Compliance with ethical standards
    All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guide-lines for the care and use of animals were followed.
    Conflict of interest statement
    The author(s) declare no competing interests.
    Ethical approval
    All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guide-lines for the care and use of animals were followed.
    Salem, M.L., Abdel Salam, S.G., Nassef, M., Hammad, S., El Adl, R., 2015. Immunoenhancing properties of the anti‑tumor effects of adoptively transferred T cells with chemotherapeutic cyclophosphamide by co‑administration of bone marrow cells. J. Basic Appl. Zool. 72, 96–103.
    Salem, M.L., Eissa, I.R., Mohamed, T.M., 2016a. Dendritic cells generated from naïve and tumor-bearing mice uniquely restores different leukocyte subpopulations in che-motherapy-treated tumor-bearing mice. Clin. Cancer Investig. J. 5, 1–10. Salem, M.L., Shoukry, N.M., Teleb, W.K., Abdel-Daim, M.M., Abdel-Rahman, M.A., 2016b. In vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of the Egyptian scorpion Androctonus amoreuxi venom in an Ehrlich ascites tumor model. Springerplus 5, 570. https://doi.
    Yu, B., Kusmartsev, S., Cheng, F., Paolini, M., Nefedova, Y., Sotomayor, E., Gabrilovich, D., 2003. Effective combination of chemotherapy and dendritic cell administration for the treatment of advanced-stage experimental breast cancer. Clin. Cancer Res. 9
    Original Research
    A New Sustained-release, 3-Month Leuprolide Acetate Formulation Achieves and Maintains Castrate Concentrations of Testosterone in Patients With Prostate Cancer
    Neal D. Shore, MD1; Sílvia Guerrero, PhD2; Rosa Ma Sanahuja, MS2; Gemma Gambús, MD, PhD2; and Antonio Parente, PhD2
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