br The third part of the questionnaire was related to
The third part of the questionnaire was related to knowledge and awareness of BC screening methods, which include questions about the common screening methods (mammography, CBE, and BSE), as well as assessing the source of information about BC. The last part include questions regarding activities practiced by the women for screening methods (mammography, CBE, and BSE), which was assessed by asking four questions for each method (have heard about this SP 600125 method, how many times to do it, regularity in practice, purpose for performance, and reasons for not practicing BC screening method).
A pretesting for the questionnaire was conducted on 20 women, and the data were analyzed to ensure proper administration and face validity of the instrument, comprehension, and feasibility. The in-ternal reliability of knowledge for both scales was confirmed by a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.76, which was considered satis-factory for the purpose of this study.
According to our sample size, we used the prevalence of 25% of them having poor knowledge. Therefore, we used the 75th percentile as a cutoff score to distinguish between a low level of knowledge and a high level of knowledge in each dimension. The overall possible knowledge score of 18 (range: 0-18) was dichoto-mized to a low level of knowledge if the total score was <14 (75th percentile of the total score) or a high of level knowledge if the score was 14 as a cutoff point. A similar approach was used to identify the level of knowledge of the awareness of BC risk factors (10 questions) or warning symptoms and signs of BC (8 questions). Accordingly, the 75th percentile (8/10 questions) of the total score and higher was considered as a high level of knowledge and that below this cutoff was considered as a low level of knowledge (6/8 questions). Knowledge and awareness of BC screening is defined as awareness of BSE, CBE, and use of a mammogram as common screening methods of BC. For each domain, three main questions
were asked on the basis of two knowledge scales created as “zero” for “No” and “one” for “Yes” based on the options available. Barriers toward CBE were constructed in a closed end format with multiple options. Participants were asked to tick the answer aster were about such as if they heard about the specific method, frequency of per-forming the procedure, and when a woman has to perform the specific procedure?
The deidentified responses were numerically coded and entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 for statistical analysis. Data were represented as frequencies and proportions, and categorical variables were compared by using the chi-square test. The binary logistic regression model was fitted to define sociodemographic and other variables that may be associated with levels of knowledge by inclusion of significant variables at univariate analysis. Variables found to be significant in the univariate analyses were included in the final multivariate logistic regression analysis, with a score of knowledge of 75th percentile considered as knowledgeable. All tests were two-sided at a confi-dence interval of 95%, and the statistical significance level was considered at a P value of <.05.
The study was granted ethical clearance by the Research Committee Family Medicine Department (Ethical Research Com-mittee), College of Medicine, Hadhramout University (HUCOM), Mukalla, Yemen.
Participants were given an information statement outlining the study aims and benefits, and if they agreed to participate, they were asked to sign the provided consent form ensuring them that the information was only going to be used in the research and that their privacy was respected and the confidentiality of their information was assured. All participants who verbally agreed and signed the consent form were face-to-face interviewed in a comfortable room and in the local Arabic language.
Table 1 Sociodemographic Characteristics of Participants
Age group (years)
Level of education
Illiterate/read and write 55 17.3
Nonworking/Housewives 246 77.6
Amen Bawazir et al
Figure 1 Sources of Information About Breast Cancer Screening
relative/frinds health worker Mass media other sources
Source of information
A total of 317 women were included in this study. Table 1
displays sociodemographic characteristics of the participants who
attended PHCCs in Ghail Bawazir District. The mean ( SD) and
60 years, respectively. Of the total participants in this study, 175