br Results br A total of
A total of 350 questionnaires were administered but 332 of them were returned satisfactorily completed by the respondents giving a re-sponse rate of 95.0%. Table 1 shows that most (45.8%) of them were 20–39 years old while the mean age (SD) was 40.8 (13.0) years. Ma-jority (69.9%) were married while only 29.5% of them attained tertiary education. Majority of the respondents were Christians (76.2%) while Yoruba constituted the largest ethnic group (83.7%).
Table 2 reveals that 41.3% of the respondents had ever used modern family planning methods; 26.3% of such women had ever used oral contraceptive pills. Also, 35.2% of the women had ever consumed al-coholic drinks. Only 3 (0.9%) of the women had ever smoked cigarette, none of them were current smokers. There was positive family history of breast cancer among 3.9% of the women interviewed. Table 3 shows that 77.7% of the women were aware of breast cancer with mass media being the commonest sources of information (46.9%; Fig. 1). Only 38.9% of the respondents had good knowledge of breast cancer. Less than half (36.7%) of the respondents had ever heard about BSE; health workers were the sources of information in 73.8% of in-stances. Almost three-quarter (73.8%) of the women who were aware of BSE said that they had been given sufficient information on how to carry out the exercise appropriately while BSE was being practised regularly (monthly) in 61.5% of such women. Only 31.6% of the
Fig. 1. Respondents’ source of information about Breast cancer.
NB: Multiple responses allowed.
Fig. 2. Practice of breast cancer screening among the respondents (either SBE, CBE or both).
respondents had ever gone for CBE; breast lumps were found in 3.8% of such women. Only 5.4% of the respondents were aware of breast ul-trasound while 2.7% were aware of mammography as breast cancer screening tests. In Fig. 2, 44.9% of the study participants had ever practised breast cancer screening (either SBE, CBE or both). Table 4 shows that the
Factors associated with respondents’ breast cancer screening practice.
Variable Practice of screening
χ2 p value
No formal education
At the multivariate level (Table 5), women who were aware of breast examination were eight times more likely to have had breast cancer screening compared to those who had no knowledge of screening (aOR;7.6, 95%CI;4.1–14.2).
The current study revealed that 77.7% of the women in the study 1353224-53-9 were aware of breast cancer. This finding is not surprising as Journal of Cancer Policy 20 (2019) 100179
Predictors of practice of breast cancer screening among the respondents.
Variable B p value aOR (95% CI)
Level of education
Ever heard of breast cancer
Ever heard of breast examination
Relatives who died of breast cancer
Knowledge of breast cancer
several studies have shown high awareness level on breast cancer in Nigeria [14–17]. Omotara et al.  however reported a lower awareness level (58.2%) among women in the Northern part of Nigeria. The disparity could have been due to the fact that the said study was conducted in the rural areas whereas the current study was urban-based. In Nigeria, women living in urban areas tend to have better access to health-related information compared to those in rural areas.
In spite of the relatively high breast cancer awareness level, only
38.9% of our respondents possessed good knowledge of the disease. This finding is in consonance with results from previous Nigerian stu-dies. In 2016, Ojewusi et al. , reported that 86.3% of teachers in the urban city of Ibadan, Nigeria had poor knowledge of breast cancer. Secondary school teachers are expected to be better informed on health issues, yet adaptive radiation possessed poor knowledge of breast cancer in the study. In fact, more than half (55.0%) of Nigerian female health workers were reported by Akhigbe and Omuemu  to have possessed poor knowledge on risk factors of breast cancer and knowledge of SBE was low among them.
Less than half (36.7%) of our respondents were aware of BSE as a method of breast cancer screening. Our finding is lower than what Osime  reported as the awareness level of BSE among women in Benin City, Nigeria. The discrepancy may be due to the fact that the Benin study was carried out among civil servants who are more likely to be better educated and having enhanced access to health-related in-formation for positive decision making. Only 9 (2.7%) of our re-spondents were aware of mammography. In contrast, Akhigbe and Omuemu  reported that 80.7% of their study participants knew about the screening tool; however, the study was conducted among health workers who are expected to demonstrate excellent breast cancer-related knowledge.